Following the death of Muhammad in the early 7thcentury, the tribes of the Arabic peninsula engaged in an unprecedented campaign of military expansion; their conquests led to the domination of western Asia and northern Africa for many centuries. But what role did Islam, both as a religion and a cultural system, play in this radical historical transformation? Can the Muslim creed alone explain the establishment of dynasties and empire across the region? What other factors influenced state-society relations, the arts, law, and administrative practices in the region between 632 and 1258?
The essay must be between 1,200 and 1,400 words long.