University Essay


This is the question that needs to be answered: if you were a training director responsible for instructing managers in the techniques of management, how would you evaluate your training programs effectiveness? Is the goal model of effectiveness useful? Is the systems model useful?

The format needs to be like this:
• Introduction – give guidance to your reader
• Include definitions
• Explain your understanding – including any model/figure
• Include examples as evidence of explanation
• Critically analyze why the topic is important – to the examples/to organizational behavior
• Conclusion

One of the sources has to be the book: Gibson, J., Ivancevich, J., Donnelly, J., and konopaske, R. (2011). Organizations: Behavior, Structure, Processes. (14th Edition). McGraw­Hill.


Organizational Behaviour – Management

Training is a critical aspect of management practice in the modern corporate world. Training directors are responsible for instructing managers on the best management techniques. As a training director, I would prefer to use the goal model of effectiveness instead of the systems model. This essay sets out to explain these two models in addition to providing my justification of the former as the best training technique.

            Firstly, the goal model entails identifying organizational goals and means of achieving them (Gibson, Ivancevich, Donelly & Konopaske, 2011). Under this approach, a training manager is supposed to not only stipulate goals but also identify steps for accomplishing them. Next, he/she designs a program of activities, each aimed at facilitating the achievement of a specific objective that contributes to the overall organizational goal. To evaluate whether a training program is effective, one only needs to compare the outcomes derived with the goals set at the beginning. This goal-oriented is not only straightforward but easier to implement than the one stipulated under the systems model.

            Secondly, the systems model defines the organization as a single component made up of sub-units, building blocks or departments (Gibson, Ivancevich, Donelly & Konopaske, 2011). These individual sub-units hold individual responsibilities and operation systems that are interrelated and geared towards the accomplishment of the shared goals of the organization. Under this model, the underlying assumption is that each sub-unit must perform its role in order for the entire unit to function properly. However, problems may arise due to disagreements among members of different sub-units in regards to the role each should play (Kirkpatrick, 2006). Thus, the systems model diverts employees’ attention away from goals and towards the direction of processes. Moreover, adherence to the set guidelines and processed throughout a training program does not guarantee the realization of the pre-set goals. Although relationships among sub-systems are essential for overall effectiveness of the training process, they should not be prioritized over actual results and goals.

Meanwhile, a better way of optimizing outcomes using the knowledge acquired in relation to the two models would entail using them in a complimentary fashion (Billet, 2001). In a well-managed organization, it is possible to apply both models and still achieve exemplary results. The goal model draws its main strength from its laser-focus on core goals while the system model’s core benefit is its role in ensuring harmony and synchrony in differing units with the aim of achieving a common goal, albeit using different approaches. For example, I would use latter model to evaluate how well training managers are performing in terms of interactions and relations with each other as part of the process of facilitating the seamless functioning of conceptual, abstract, and concrete systems.

Overall, as a training director, I would prioritize the use of the goal model in determining the overall effectiveness of the training process. At the same time, I would use insights gained from the systems model to determine the level of effectiveness in terms of how different sub-systems operated in synchrony throughout the training process. Moreover, the choice of one model over the other may vary depending on the situation. For example, abstract and conflicting goals such as organizational culture are best measured the systems model while bottom-line training-related outcomes such as hard skills are best measured using the goal model. Finally, it is evident that the use of these two models provides crucial insights into the dynamics of organizational behaviour. As a training director, I appreciate the need to instruct managers in various management techniques with both processes and goals in mind.


Billet, S. (2001). Learning in the workplace: Strategiess for effective practice. Crows Nest: Allen & Unwin.

Gibson, J, Ivancevich, J, Donelly, J. & Konopaske, R. (2011). Organizations: Behavior, structure, process, 14th edition. New York, NY: Mc Graw Hill.

Kirkpatrick, D. (2006). Evaluating training programs: The four levels. Oakland, CA: Berret-Koehler Publishers.

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