Psychology Paper


Please see attached document for the assignment directions on what needs to be included in the “Results” section of the paper.

Also included in the directions is a grading rubric, some rules of thumb about the size of an effect based on Cohen’s (1988) conventions because we will want to mention the effect size.

Attached docs you will find:

sample paper that the format MUST be followed on how they break out each section of the results section.

Data analysis detailed directions
Results of the data analysis-

For these two attachments is where you will find the numbers and info on each test ran and the data to insert into the results section.

Also, attached is the existing measures and this is where you will get the info for the reference page and for citations thru out the paper.

Reference Page:
Make sure to include the SPSS was used to analyze the data and here is the info for the reference page: Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

Remember to locate the info for the citations thru out and the reference page in the exisitng measures attached.



Existing Measures

            In order to ascertain the reliability of the existing measures and to ensure they have the right properties that could provide the appropriate measurements based on the novel scale. The study involved the analysis of descriptive statistics. An SPSS analysis was used to analyze the data (Cohen, 1988). There were three constructs in the study that included the same/similar construct, related construct, and unrelated construct. A similar construct had a construct named introversion that was placed on a scale of 18 items. According to McCroskey, Burroughs, Daun, & Richmond(1990), the Eysenck Personality Scales the existing measure that will be used to measure the same construct as the desired construct (introversion in adults). It measures the level of introversion or extroversion within a person. In the calculation of the existing measure of the same construct, an introversion scale that consisted of 18 items was utilized (M= 19.77, SD = 7.48). The first step involved the reversal of items 1 and 4 before adding them to items 2, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, and 18. A new variable was got by subtracting 12 from the total of all the items. For the related construct, the scale involved 27 items that were measured using the High Sensitive Scale. The related construct utilized a Highly Sensitive People scale (M = 4.23, SD = .694). The items were not reversed as in the first instance. Instead, they were scored in the same direction. The Highly Sensitive Scale (Aron & Aron, 1997) is an existing measure that was used to measure behavior that should be related to introversion. As for the unrelated construct (shyness), a shyness scale was utilized. The shyness scale (McCroskey & Richmond, 1982) is an existing measure that will be used to measure a behavior/trait that should be unrelated to the construct of introversion.The study utilized a Shyness scale (M = 40.02, SD = 9.21). In the first step, items 2, 3, 5, 8, 10, 13, as well as 14 were reverse. The remaining items that included items 1, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, and 12 were then summed. This led to the creation of a new variable that was got through the addition of 42 to the total that was obtained from the addition of the first items, and the subtraction of the second set of items. Reliability analysis was then done on all the variables by using Cronbach’s alpha. The results for the three constructs included Shyness scale (a = .899), High Sensitivity People scale (a = .859) and Introversion scale (a = .853). The results indicated that the scales had good reliability hence could be used for comparison against the novel scale.


Novel Scale

Descriptive statistics: Descriptive analysis was conducted to help establish the novel scale. The novel scale that was created included taking the reverse of item 9, after which the total scale was computed by totaling all the items. The high scores represented a high level of introversion. The descriptive statistics were then run to come up with a new variable (M = 3.26. SD = .491, min = 2.40, and max = 4.60). There was good variability as the score of the items were spread throughout the scale. The scores were neither very low nor very high.

Reliability: the reliability analysis was run using the Cronbach’s Alpha to test the consistency of the scale to the measurement. After the computation of the Cronbach’s alpha, the results produce an evidence of good scale reliability, α = .691 that was marginally accepted. The scale could thus be used for comparison with the novel scale.

Validity: the validity test was then run to establish whether the scores measured what was intended to be measured. The concurrent validity as established by correlating the novel scale mean with similar construct mean. The results obtained was r = -.442, p < .01, that indicates an effect size that is moderate and significantly related. The convergent validity of the novel scale was examined through the correlation of the novel scale mean score with the variable representing related construct. The results of the convergent validity were r = .156, p < .0079 thus indicating an effect size that is small and trending towards significance. The discriminant validity was assessed through correlating the novel scale with the variable that represented the unrelated construct. The results of the correlation were r = .661, p = .01, which indicated an effect size that was large and significantly correlated/related.

Incremental validity: the next assessment done included the incremental validity and was aimed at establishing whether the scale was worth using with the existing measures of the same construct. A hierarchical linear regression was run with an aim of predicting the scores of introversion from high sensitivity and shyness, and the scores were R2 = .017, F (1, 126) = 2.199,p = .141 and R2 change = .012, F change (1, 125) = 1.541,    p = .217. The novel scale failed to demonstrate significant incremental validity in the prediction of introversion scores.


Item analysis: there were nine items in the novel scale that were examined to establish the effect of high sensitivity and shyness on introversion. The results revealed items with item-total correlations < .30: __3__. The items that fell below < .20 included: Item 4: I think before I speak -.254, Item 6:I prefer interacting with others with the same interests -.101, andItem 8: I only have a few close friends .126. An examination of the item-total correlations indicated that the 3 items poorly correlated with the rest of the scale because they fell below < .20. The removal of the following items, “I think before I speak”, “I prefer interacting with others with same interests” and “I only have a few close friends” would yield a higher Cronbach’s alpha. 

Factor Analysis: a factor analysis was run on the 10 items to establish under which measure the scale can best be understood. The results of the factors loading on each item included, Factor 1: “Process information internally,” Factor 2: “Privacy matters,” and Factor 3: “Connecting and relationship building. The first factor consisted of items 10, 7, and item 5. The second factor consisted of items 9 and 3. The third factor consisted of two items that included item 4 and 6. The cross-loading items included item 1, 2, and 8. Under the Scree Plot Criterion, only one factor was found to the left of the elbow. The items that were loading on each factor included item 1,2, and 3 under “quietness.” The next items under factor 2 included item 10 and 3 and can be included under “introspective.” The third factor had items 9, 4, 6, and 8 and can be included under “cautiousness.” There was only one item that was cross-loading; item 7. When varimax rotation was performed, there was only one factor to the left of the elbow, but chose to retain 2 factors. The results differed from the first analysis. The scale utilized a multiple subscale.


Aron E, N. & Aron, A. (1997). Sensory-processing sensitivity and its relation to introversion and

emotionality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73:345-368.

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

McCroskey, J.C., Burroughs, N.F., Daun, A., & Richmond, V.P. (1990). Correlates of

quietness: Swedish and American perspectives. Communication Quarterly, 38(2),

McCroskey, J. C. & Richmond, V. P. (1982). ‘Communication apprehension and shyness:

Conceptual and operational distinctions’. Central States Speech Journal, 33.

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