A. Opening example: Musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children.
B. What is the Obesity Disease?
C. What are the factors that lead to Obesity? (Paediatric obesity: Treands and Causes)
D. How many people are getting obesity? (The rate)
A. The reason why people get obesity disease. (Spesific Detail.)
B. What is the trends rate? (Include heredity)
C. The sequelae.
A. Does Obesity disease has a cure?
B. How many ways to deal with Obesity?
C. What is the fastest method to cure Obesity?
D. What can we do to reduce the rate of getting Obesity?
Obesity has become a serious problem in the modern world. The problem is so serious that it is now considered an epidemic. Its prevalence was even captured in the Affordable Care Act (2010), with insurers being mandated to provide cover for obesity counseling and screening services as an integral component of insurance policies. It affects both children and adults, with long-term energy imbalance arising from inactivity and unhealthy eating habits being the main cause. The prevalence of obesity has also been found to be influenced by genetics, ethnicity, and environmental factors. Obesity affects the physical, emotional, and psychological wellbeing of the affected individuals in addition to increasing the risk of chronic diseases. Some of the chronic diseases that are associated with obesity include heart disease, stroke type 2 diabetes, and some cancers. In the developed world, obesity is the most common cause of increased morbidity among children and adolescents.
An example of the physical problems that arise because of obesity is musculoskeletal pain among obese and overweight children. Smith, Sumar and Dixon report that obesity is associated with increased incidences of musculoskeletal pain among children and adults (11). Moreover, an increase in anxiety and depression levels among children who suffer from chronic musculoskeletal pain has also been reported (Smith, Sumar and Dixon 12). In most cases, non-specific musculoskeletal pain among children and adolescents affects lower limbs. This pain tends to have a negative impact on level of activity, physical exercise, and overall quality of life of the affected children.
Obesity disease may be defined as a medical condition in which an individual becomes grossly overweight, and is characterized by pathological excess fat in the body (Collins et al., 236). The WHO (World Health Organization) defines obesity disease as excessive or abnormal accumulation of fat that leads to impairment of one’s health (Smith, Sumar and Dixon 11). Multifactorial influences contribute to the occurrence of this disease, and this is demonstrated by the widespread investigations into its etiology (Collins et al. 237).
Some of the factors that lead to obesity include decreased activity levels, consumption of too much energy-rich foods, spending too much time on sedentary tasks, environmental factors, genetics, and ethnicity. The role of environmental factors has been widely discussed, particularly behaviors relating to food intake vis-à-vis the level of physical activity. The choice of behaviors in this regard greatly influences the emergence of obesity especially within pediatric populations (Collins et al. 237). Collins observes that this has led to the emergence of the Obesogenic Environments Theory, which highlights the sum of influences exerted by conditions, surroundings, and opportunities of life on the promotion of obesity among individuals and populations (237). An environment is said to promote obesity if it encourages physical inactivity and a sedentary lifestyle while at the same time facilitating the consumption of excess-energy foods.
The rate at which people are getting obesity is alarming. For example, in Australia, estimates show that the prevalence of pediatric obesity increases by 1 percent every year (Collins et al. 236). They also show that prevalence has risen to 27 percent of the Australian pediatric population; it is estimated that this prevalence will escalate to 40 percent by 2025 (Collins et al. 236). An even more alarming statistic indicates that the number of children with the obesity disease in Australia trebled between 1985 and 1997. This dramatic escalation in the prevalence of obesity in Australia reflects the trend that has been unfolding across the world in the form of an international obesity epidemic affecting both children and adults. Smith, Sumar and Dixon support this argument by stating that during the past three decades, an increase of 50 percent in childhood obesity worldwide has been reported, with some 43 million below the age of 5 getting into the category of overweight people (11).
A number of factors cause people to get obesity disease. One factor is diet, whereby excess energy intake greatly contributes to the onset of obesity. People can avoid obesity by reducing the amount of energy that ends up in their bodies by adopting healthy eating habits. The onset of the disease is also contributed by sedentary behaviors as well as lack of physical activity. Sedentary behaviors and physical inactivity also contribute to the accumulation of energy in the body, leading to obesity. Genetic predisposition is also an important factor for obesity disease. Some people are more likely to become obese primarily because their genetic makeup predisposes them to this disease. Environmental influences have also been blamed for the prevalence of obesity disease to the point where it has become an international epidemic. The modern world is designed to make people physically inactive. People spend many hours sitting down while working in their offices, driving to and from work, and watching television at home. This kind of world provides an environment where the lifestyle choices that people are expected to make by society can easily lead to the onset of obesity disease.
The rate at which people are getting obesity disease is increasing, and this explains the widespread view that this condition has become an international epidemic. Again, it may be important to give the example of Australia, where estimates by WHO indicate that 20 percent of school-going children are either obese or overweight (Smith, Sumar and Dixon 11). The same estimates show that children who come from low socioeconomic areas are 70 percent more likely to become either obese or overweight (Smith, Sumar and Dixon 11). This is an indication of a trend in which obesity disease may continue posing a major public health concern.
The sequelae of pain and lethargy that come with obesity disease have severe debilitating effects for children and adults alike. A case in point is musculoskeletal pain, which is a common problem for obese and overweight children. Children, adolescents, and adults with obese are more likely to complain of chronic back pain, hip pain, pelvic pain, and foot pain than their non-obese and non-overweight counterparts. Other problems relating to obesity are bone dysfunction and deformity. The combined effects of obesity, chronic pain, and reduced physical functioning triggers a vicious cycle of weight gain that can severely affect an individual’s quality of life. Smith, Sumar and Dixon recommend that further studies should be conducted on the sequelae of obese and overweight children who experience chronic musculoskeletal pain.
Obesity has a cure, one of which is to subject victims to obesity counselling in a primary care setting. In other words, the best way to cure obesity disease is through primary care-based interventions (Wright, et al. 1). In these interventions, emphasis should be on ways of improving health behaviors. In this approach, it is also important for an assessment of the financial resources that are needed for purposes of successful implementation (Wright, et al. 2). Analyses of costs of these health interventions can be used by decision makers to assess the prioritization of resources among various competing programs in addition to sheer affordability (Wright, et al. 2).
There are several ways in which people can deal with obesity; they include making the right food choices at all times; seeking an ideal social support system comprising of people such as close friends, family members, and relatives; and always making small goals regarding exercise and learning to pursue them to fruition, one after the other, in order to deal with sequelae. In terms of cure, the fastest method is surgery. This method is normally resorted to if urgent medical reasons, for example, diabetes, compel an individual to lose weight.
The best way of reducing the rate of getting obesity is by seeking to prevent its occurrence during childhood because there is always a high risk of childhood obesity continuing into adulthood. During childhood, it is possible for caregivers and parents to prevent the problem of long-term energy imbalance from commencing by ensuring that children are subjected to right diet, exercise routines, lifestyle, and environment. Using this approach, it is possible to incorporate other measures, including obesity screening, usual primary-care practices, clinical diagnosis, and the identification of health problems that may be indicative of the onset of obesity. The rate of getting obesity worldwide can be reduced if policymakers and caregivers focus on ensuring that the environmental factors that lead to the onset of obesity during childhood are not allowed to continue into adulthood.
Collins, Clare., Grech, Louise., Lee, Jessica., Thomsitt, Katie and McGrice, Melanie. “Pediatric Obesity: Trends and Causes.” Nutrition & Dietetics 68 (2011): 236–238.
Smith, S., Sumar, B and Dixon, K. “Musculoskeletal pain in overweight and obese children.” International Journal of Obesity, 38 (2014): 11–15.
Wright, Davene., Taveras, Elsie., Gillman, Matthew., Horan, Christine., Hohman, Katherine., Gortmaker, Steven and Prosser, Lisa. The cost of a primary care-based childhood obesity prevention intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier number: NCT00377767.