English Sample Paper
| Length: 1000 -1200 words (essays over 1200 words will not be graded), not including the title, Works Cited/Reference page, appropriate headings, and so on.|
Font: 12 pica font (Times New Roman or Arial)
Format: Follow appropriate MLA- or APA-style formatting requirements.
Grading Criteria: Thesis, Development, Organization, Language Skills, and APA or MLA documentation and format.
Even though the essays will use sources I’ve posted to Moodle, a Works Cited page (MLA) or a References page (APA) is required. You will need to cite the sources you use, but NOT the ads or commercials you have found (As I will explain in class, these will be introduced in the essay’s body.). As with the first essay, outside research is not permitted–use the sources I have provided you with. Conducting outside research will result in an “F” on this essay. Remember, though, that the ads you choose can come from any source–from magazines, to image searches, to online videos, and so on.
For this assignment, you will write an analysis synthesis essay. However, you will choose one of the following options:
Select a category of three advertisements (e.g. cigarettes, alcohol, jeans, etc.) from different time periods. For example, you might select a cigarette ad from the 1940s, another from the 1970s, and one from the 2000s. Compare and contrast the types of appeals underlying these ads, as discussed by Fowles. To what extent do you notice significant shifts of appeal from the past to the present? Which types of appeal seem to you most effective with particular product categories? Is it more likely, for example, that people will buy cigarettes because they want to feel autonomous or because cigarettes will make them more attractive to the opposite sex.
Select three ads in different product categories that all appear to rely on the same primary appeal–perhaps the appeal to sex or the appeal to affiliation. Compare and contrast the overall strategies of these ads. Draw upon Fowles and Boveé et al. to develop your ideas. To what extent do your analyses support argument often made by social critics (and advertising people) that what people are really buying is the image, rather than the product?
Discuss how a selection (three) ads or television commercials that reveals shifting cultural attitudes over the past six decades toward either (1) gender relations; (2) romance between men and women; (3) smoking; or (4) automobiles. In the case of 1 or 2, the ads do not have to be for the same category of product. In terms of their underlying appeal, in terms of the implicit or explicit messages embodied both in the text and the graphics, how and to what extent do the ads reveal that attitudes of the target audiences have changed over the years?
Select a TV commercial or a TV ad campaign (for example, for Sprint phone service, Progressive insurance, etc.) and analyze the commercial(s) in terms of Fowles’ categories, as well as the discussion of Bovée et al. To what extent do the principles discussed by these authors apply to broadcast, as well as to print ads? What are the special requirements of TV advertising?
Find a small group of ads that rely upon little or no body copy–just a graphic, perhaps a headline, and the product name. What common features underlie the marketing strategies of such ads? What kinds of appeals do they make? How do their graphic aspects compare? What makes the need for text superfluous? You may draw from Fowles and/or Bovée et al. (Remember–you must use at least ONE of these sources).
Many ads employ humor–in the graphics, in the body copy, or both–to sell a product. Examine one to three advertisements that rely on humor to make their appeal, and explain how they work. For example, do they play off an incongruity between one element of the ad and another (such as the basic message of the ad) and what we know or assume to be the case in the “real world”? Do they employ wordplay or irony? Do they picture people doing funny things (funny because inappropriate or unrealistic)? What appeal underlies the humor? Aggression? Sex? Nurturing? Based on your examination and analyses, what appear to be some of the more effective ways of employing humor?
please follow it and don’t forget Works Cited/Reference page.
Advertisements use different types of appeals in order to attract new buyers and retain existing new ones. Some common examples of advertising appeals include need to achieve, need for prominence, need to dominate, need for affiliation, and need for sex. Moreover, pressure from market competition and changing socio-economic and cultural circumstances make it necessary for advertisers to switch from one advertising appeal (or a set of advertising appeals) to another with time. The aim of this paper is to compare and contrast the different types of appeals that were used in three cigarette adverts produced at different periods (1940s, 1970s, and 2000s). The paper identifies the significant shifts of appeal that may have occurred during the three eras. The thesis for the paper is that sex and autonomy are the most effective types of appeals for cigarettes since they do not lose their popularity even when used in cigarette advertising from one generation to the other.
The first advert was published in 1946, and it shows an image of a doctor smoking a cigarette (See Appendix 1). Below the picture, there is a statement indicating that more doctors are smoking Camels compared to any other cigarette brand. The advertiser’s attempt to associate doctors with his brand of cigarettes is hardly surprising since it came at a time when the first major scientific study causally linking smoking to risk of lung cancer had recently been published. Below the picture of a doctor holding a Camel cigarette and the message is a detailed explanation of the survey findings that ends with a positive appraisal of Camel’s unique qualities.
The second cigarette ad was published in 1975. It features a medium close-up photo of a middle-aged man holding a pack of Winston Cigarettes (See Appendix 2). An advertising message is then superimposed on the image. In this message, the advertiser points out that the Winston box fits the way the smoker lives and that the cigarette’s taste always goes with the smoker.
The third advert was produced in the year 2000. It features a photo of a heavily built man lighting up a cigarette (See Appendix 3). The image is positioned below the words “Camel” and “Pleasure to Burn”. The man’s sleeves have been rolled up to reveal his muscles, and a badge resembling the shape of the Camel pack has been embedded at the end of the sleeve. Unlike in the previous adverts, this advert contains a “surgeon’s general warning” indicating that smoke from the cigarette contains carbon monoxide.
Fowles identified fifteen needs that an advert can appeal to, and they include sex, nurture, satisfying curiosity, affiliation, domination, guidance, achievement, aggression, prominence, autonomy, escape, aesthetic sensations, feeling safe, attention, and physiological needs such as food, sleep, and drink (273). The 1946 advert seeks to fulfill the need to feel safe. The advert was produced at a time when evidence was emerging to indicate that cigarette smoking could cause lung cancer. Thus, the advertisers figured out that consumers needed to feel safe about their drinking habits, and the best way to fulfill this was to affiliate their brand of cigarettes with doctors.
On the other hand, the primary appeal in the 1975 advert is the need for unique aesthetic sensations. Fowles argues that the aesthetic element can sometimes be elevated to become an advert’s primary appeal (282). This is precisely what seems to have happened to the 1975 advert, where the message was all about how the aesthetic elements of the Winston box design that make it fit in the consumers’ life as well as go wherever he goes.
The cigarette advert of the year 2000 was designed to reignite the popularity of cigarette smoking. The medium close-up photo of a heavily built man lighting up a cigarette, the vintage feel attached to the photo, and the inclusion of the phrase “Since 1913”, all seem to have been designed to create the impression that cigarette smoking is becoming fashionable once again. The main appeals that this advert satisfies include aggression, sex, pleasure, and satisfying curiosity.
The need to aggress is satisfied by the impression that the heavily built man is taking all the time in the world to conquer the urge to smoke by lighting up the Camel. According to Fowles, it is wise to tone down aggressive appeals in order to avoid a situation where the advert backfires by attracting criticism from the public (280). In the advert of the year 2000, the photographed man invokes masculine aggression through his no-nonsense posture and extreme concentration in his quest to light up the cigarette. Moreover, the posture creates the impression that the Camel brand of cigarettes can help consumers satisfy their need for sex, the need for pleasure, as well as the need to satisfy curiosity.
Based on the analysis of the three adverts, it appears that certain types of appeals are more effective than others. The most effective types of appeal for cigarettes include sex, autonomy, aggression, pleasure, unique aesthetic sensations, and satisfying curiosity. For example, sexual allusion is present in each of the three cigarettes ads. In the 1946 ad, there is an image of a beautiful women who is smiling suggestively while holding a cigarette. In the 1975 ad, the man presented portrays what many women may consider the characteristics of the ideal male partner – tall, brave-looking, bare-chested, and athletic physique. Incidentally, these characteristics also contribute to a portrayal of autonomy, aggression, pleasure, and unique aesthetic sensations.
Other than sex, the autonomous appeal also cuts across the three adverts. The 1946 advert paints a picture of a financially stable, proud, and happy family man who is already well established in his career as a doctor. The 1976 and 2000 adverts also portray the impression of ambitious middle-aged men who are not doing very badly in life, and thus have enough sense of style to seek the simple pleasures that come with things such as cigarettes. This attention to detail seems like something that many people may associate with autonomy, leading them to become consumers of cigarettes. Thus, autonomy is an ideal type of appeal for cigarettes.
Some changes may occur in sellers’ choice of types of appeals. For example, the need to feel safe was a dominant appeal among cigarette advertisers because the first causal link between cigarette smoking and lung cancer had just been established. However, there are other types of appeals whose popularity remains unchanged across generations, such as sex and autonomy. Thus, it seems that since the 1940s, many people have continued to smoke cigarettes because it makes them look more appealing to members of the opposite sex. Similarly, the need to appear autonomous has also continued to play a dominant role in the decision by consumers to become consumers of cigarettes.
Fowles, Jib. “Advertising’s Fifteen Basic Appeals.” ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 39.3 (1982): 273-290.
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